Long afore AIDS fabricated an admission into our dictionaries and our circadian paranoias, there were added beastly scares: syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and beastly warts, to name a few. But no one absolutely talked those canicule about safe sex (although some of these added sexually-transmitted infections could aswell eventually bulk victims their lives). In endlessly beastly allowance asleep in its tracks, AIDS may able-bodied accept done us a favour: because, the accurate beastly behaviour that is our best aegis adjoin AIDS aswell constitutes our best aegis adjoin added Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs).
The aspect of safe sex is alienated high-risk ally and practices, and application condom-management strategies. But if it comes down to the specifics, abounding questions arise:
Who are the high-risk beastly partners?
The high-risk groups are homosexuals, bi-sexuals, prostitutes, intravenous biologic abusers; heterosexuals from Central Africa area AIDS is common; those who accept had assorted claret transfusions in areas area AIDS is rampant. Beastly episodes with high-risk ally are the a lot of accepted way the infection is anesthetized on.
The accident of accepting AIDS from one penis-vaginal action adventure with anyone from a high-risk accumulation has been estimated to be: (with condom) – 1 in 100,000 to 1 in 10,000; (without condom) – 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 1000. (The advanced ambit of allowance is because of altered ante of infection a allotment of high-risk groups).
Of course, anyone who’s not a high-risk accomplice is not necessarily a no-risk partner. If two humans beddy-bye together, it’s about accumulation sex: they are in aftereffect sleeping with anybody anniversary of them has slept with in the accomplished 5 to ten years.
How abounding beastly encounters with a high-risk accomplice would it yield for the virus to be transmitted?
The virus can be transmitted through just one beastly appointment with an adulterated person. But the affairs are beneath than in the case of assorted encounters with high-risk persons. In one abstraction at the University of California, beneath than 10 out of 100 bodies were begin to accept apprenticed the virus through a individual beastly appointment with an adulterated person. But addition abstraction begin that the allowance got steadily worse with connected beastly action with an adulterated accomplice over a two-year periods – 12 out of 14 humans concluded up infected.
That is why addition basal bidding of safe sex: abstain assorted beastly partners. Abnormally if they are unknown, accidental partners, you accept no way of alive which of them is infected, and with every encounter, the laws of anticipation favour you beneath and less. Sex with a single, known, accurate accomplice is one of your best armour accessories adjoin austere infection. So, if you’ve approved the rest, now try the best: monogamy!
Is a man added acceptable to accord the infection to a woman than the added way round?
Sperm does arise to accommodate a college absorption of the virus afresh vaginal secretions and the virus does arise to be added calmly transmitted from men to women afresh from women to men. But men shouldn’t get too complacent about this. In Africa, area the ache has had added time to do its work, there’s a one-to-one infection arrangement amid men and women.
Which is the a lot of chancy beastly practice?
Without question, anal action afterwards a condom. The walls of the rectum are thinner than the vaginal walls and accordingly added decumbent to abrasions and tears. So, the AIDS virus from an adulterated partner’s berry is captivated added calmly during anal sex.
Other high-risk practices (with an adulterated partner) are condomless vaginal action fellatio, cunnilingus, the administration of insertive sex toys and annihilation that would absorb claret contact.
Moderate-risk practices are French kissing, articulate sex application condoms, vaginal sex application condoms and spermicide, and anal action application condoms and spermicide.
How safe is kissing?
The AIDS virus is agitated by absolute fluids – afar from berry and blood, that includes urine, vaginal secretions, tears, saliva and even faeces.
Does that accomplish practices like articulate sex and ‘tongue kissing’ unsafe? The virus is begin alone rarely in saliva. In a abstraction of 83 patients (reported in The New England Account of Medicine), the virus was detected in the saliva of alone one.
In addition abstraction appear in the aforementioned journal, in families area an AIDS -infected affiliate aggregate food, drink, cutlery and ceramics with the others, not a individual non-infected getting bent the virus.
In these aforementioned households, associates kissed anniversary added afterwards overextension AIDS. Kissing on the cheeks and aperture appears to be altogether safe. And, to date, there’s no affirmation that saliva transmits the virus.
Still, back the virus has been abandoned in saliva (although in attenuate cases), attention is the bigger allotment of l’amour, abnormally area abysmal kissing or French kissing – the affectionate that curls your toes – is concerned. In the U.S., the Surgeon-General has brash adjoin it. While there has been no accurate case of the advance of AIDS in this way, it would be difficult to certificate because humans who alpha with this affectionate of kissing generally don’t stop there. Although a lot of advisers feel that manual is absurd even from amative kissing because there apparently wouldn’t be an able bulk of virus in the saliva or a acceptable bulk of saliva exchanged, the actuality charcoal that it’s apparently possible.
How chancy is articulate sex?
So far, advisers haven’t accepted a individual case – in either homosexuals or heterosexuals – attributable to it. But, as with abysmal kissing, it’s difficult to certificate because articulate sex so generally goes forth with added beastly activities. Therefore, the experts admonish adjoin absolution berry admission the mouth. The accident is bargain if the man wears a condom or doesn’t accrue in his partner’s mouth. But both charge to bethink that a baby bulk of the virus may be present in the pre-ejaculatory fluid.
Oral sex is beneath chancy for a heterosexual man, because he usually comes in acquaintance with beneath fluids. Still, the virus can abide in baby absorption in vaginal fluids.
What are the safe-sex activities you can acquiesce in with a accomplice of ambiguous credentials?
There are several such activities you can adore abbreviate of intercourse: dry kissing, adhering and caressing, beating and alternate masturbation (provided the man does not accrue abreast the woman’s vagina; and provided vaginal beard do not appear in acquaintance with torn skin).
Don’t condoms action foolproof aegis adjoin STDs?
Condoms accept been apparent to be laboratory-effective in blocking the manual of gonorrhea, syphilis and herpes. The a lot of able are acrylic condoms which accept been advised beneath the electron microscope – neither bacilli nor bacilli accept been able to admission them. That includes the AIDS virus, which is about 25 times abate than a sperm.
Some experts about accept their doubts about the ability of condoms fabricated from accustomed skin, such as lambskin, in blocking manual of the diminutive AIDS virus. These condoms are fabricated of hundreds of layers of absorptive collagen. Although the affairs of a virus abyssal through them are slim, lab tests accept apparent it’s possible.
However: Even with acrylic condoms, if it comes down to absolute practice, they accept never been anywhere abreast 100 per cent reliable. They slip, they break, and humans generally don’t use them anon enough, or abjure them anxiously enough. Consider this noteworthy statistic: one out of 10 women who await on condoms as contraception still get abundant anniversary year – although contraception can action alone a few canicule anniversary month. In contrast, you are affected to the AIDS virus 365 canicule a year.
Here’s how condoms fared in one real-life abstraction of couples, one of whom was adulterated and relied on condoms to anticipate the advance of the virus to the non-infected partner. Afterwards application condoms for amid one to three years, three of the 18 spouses apprenticed the virus, a abortion amount of 17 per cent. Says the study’s arch researcher, Margaret Fischl of the University Of Miami School Of Medicine, “Our abstraction shows that application condoms decreases the risk, but acutely it’s not a foolproof system”. Evidently, there is still no such affair as ‘safe sex’ with an adulterated accomplice – alone degrees of risk.
How can you advance your allowance of assurance application condoms?
- One of the best agency is to use them in bike with s spermicide which contains the alive additive nonoxynol-9. This additive has been apparent to annihilate the canker and AIDS bacilli (at atomic beneath lab conditions).
- Choose acrylic condoms over those fabricated of beastly film such as lambskin. Acrylic is beneath porous.
- Choose the acclaimed brands. They are added acceptable to accept undergone absolute testing and beneath acceptable to accept undetected holes.
- As a accepted rule, the thicker the condom the greater your allowance of safety. (That afresh makes acrylic your best bet).
- Check that the condom you use has a backlog or bowl at the end so that berry can’t discharge over the abandon during ejaculation. By communicable berry in its reservoir, this affectionate of condom aswell lowers breach risks to near-zero.
- Never use petroleum-based lubricants such as petroleum clabber with a acrylic condom – they will could cause the acrylic to disintegrate. But, lubrication does advice anticipate condom from tearing. Use K-Y jelly, baptize or – best of all – a spermicide absolute nonoxynol-9. (Do not use saliva).
- Put on the condom as anon as adjustment occurs, don’t delay until acclamation is approaching – some bacilli may escape in the pre-ejaculatory fluid.
- If you abolish the condom from its adhesive and abode it over the tip of your penis, accomplish abiding it doesn’t bolt on a ring or fingernail.
- The condom should allowance deeply to your skin. A condom that makes hasty abandonment necessary, and berry spillage possible, is abusive to your partner’s health!
- Abjure appropriate afterwards ejaculation, because if the adjustment is absent the condom may blooper off, acceptance berry to escape. Hold on to the rim of the condom as the penis is getting withdrawn.
- Dispose of the condom cautiously so that no one (a child, for example) could accidentally appear in acquaintance with semen.
- Don’t ‘store’ a carve condom in your wallet or the cuff alcove of your car. Heat amercement latex. Condoms should be stored in a cool, dry abode like a bedside drawer.
What else, in the beastly arena, increases your accident of communicable AIDS?
Sexually transmitted diseases, decidedly syphilis and chancroid, are associated with beastly ulcers, which acquiesce the HIV virus simple admission to the bloodstream.
Isn’t there any foolproof aegis adjoin AIDS?
There are two. One is to break celibate: an acknowledgment which, for a lot of of us, is of advance a non-answer.
The additional is to accept sex alone with a accomplice who has been activated for AIDS. But this is not an easy, or practical, as it sounds. It arises from the actuality that the alleged “AIDS test” is not absolutely a analysis for AIDS at all. It is a claret analysis that detects the attendance of antibodies produced by the physique to action the advancing virus – alleged the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. (It’s accordingly alleged the HIV test). If the analysis detects these antibodies, what it agency is that, at some point of time, the getting was adulterated by the virus.
However – and this is area the capital snag arises – it takes annihilation from a fortnight to six months for the physique to aftermath the HIV antibodies. This is the alleged “window phase” – the aeon during which the infection, while already present, may not be signaled by the analysis because the antibodies haven’t yet been produced. What this agency is that a abrogating aftereffect on the HIV analysis (no antibodies) is accurate alone if the analysis has been done at atomic six months afterwards the endure beastly exposure.
On the added hand, there accept aswell been problems with the use of the ELISA analysis to ascertain HIV antibodies – absolutely commonly, abnormally in the case of heterosexuals, ELISA has apparent apocryphal positives! To exclude the achievability of error, a absolute aftereffect with ELISA accept to be accepted with the alleged Western Blot test. If the after-effects are confirmed, that’s bad news, but both tests should be again a few weeks afterwards to ensure that there was no botch in claret samples in the lab.
However, even if a abeyant beastly accomplice has been certified as HIV-negative, bethink that sex with such a accomplice is ‘safe’ alone until his/her next beastly encounter. Afterwards that, as they say, all bets are off. (Unless, of course, you and this accomplice admission into a mutually austere accord – afterwards you too accept activated negative!)
What’s the bottomline in safe sex?
It’s that, area safe sex is concerned, it’s bigger to be a accepter in advantageous overreaction than to go by the no-case-yet norm. As backward as 1984, the medical apple was adage we accept ‘no case yet’ of the heterosexual advance of AIDS. One year later, oops, we’d got one. Back AIDS may accept a few added ailing surprises in store, it’s bigger to err on the ancillary of caution.
One bait of acceptable news: while some humans access the virus afterwards just a individual exposure, others don’t access it afterwards again exposures. What this agency is that, even if you’ve been accepting caught sex for years, it’s conceivably not yet too backward to alpha attention yourself.
Use condoms, use caution, use commonsense – remember, the AIDS virus cannot get you afterwards your alive co-operation!